As expected both the text and the illustrations are much easier to understand in Garsault than Diderot.
The Lingerie Stitches from Garsault, I think I need to use c. I was wondering if there were more variations on this- such as running the needle through the fold to hide stitches almost entirely but it looks like a slanted stitch as per the text.
A, Le Surjet. B, Le Point noué ou de boutonniere. C, Le Point de côté. D, Le Point devant. E, Le Point de chaînette. F, L’arriere-Point. GMH, Trois Figures pour la Couture rabattue.
A, The Overlock.
B, Knotted or buttonhole stitch.
C, The Side Point.
D, The Point in front.
E, The chain stitch.
F, The backstop.
GMH, Three Figures for Folded Stitching.
The Lingerie Stitches of Diderot
The Tailors stitches for hemming:
Of note is the upper of Fig 6; the thread is clearly seen passing through the underside to the top, then the thread not returning through the upper but between upper and lower then through the lower and back up.
Also of note is that k, or the same figure also shows this clearly as the under layer is set slightly under.
And this helps with the text:
6. Le point à rabattre sous la main. Il se fait comme le précédent, excepté qu’ayant percé l’étoffe supérieure,vous allez par dehors piquer l’étoffe inférieure au travers; puis vous les percez toutes deux en remontant: on se sert de ce point pour coudre la doublure au-dessus quand il la dépasse : k dessus, n dessous.
6. The point to fold at hand. It is like the preceding, except that having pierced the upper stuff, you go outside to stitch the bottom stuff through; then you pierce them both up: we use this point to sew the lining above when it exceeds: k, above, n below.
This is not as clear in the Diderot plate of the same stitches, the stitches do not seem to weave in Fig 16, and in Fig 17 there is no indication of the underlayer.
So that has made it much easier for me to not use this set of stitches for my mantua hemming as it is not formed this way.
I think a simple slanted stitch like I normally use will be fine for the seam allowances along the joins of the mantua petticoat and seen in the Lingerie sections will be enough.
I did manage to cut my fabric panels for my mantua, it really is pretty darm easy as it is all on the grain rectangles. It is pretty much exactly what I expect from a pre-1920s measure, cut, fit process. It looks a bit different but ultimately it’s a case of wait to floor, shoulders to waist and that’s it. Everything else is adjustable to suit.
I knew I wanted my side extensions to be only one full width of fabric (so two widths of a more in era width. I cut (tore) one width from waist to floor plus a hand width for turnings. Then folded on the diagonal to form the two side extensions.
The underskirt is cut from three drops of fabric as these tend to be between 5-7 widths of in era fabric widths. I will wind up with side openings which will allow me to wear pockets underneath. The Henri Bonnart illustrations show a lot of openings for pockets.
The front of the robe was cut from one full width of fabric as long as from my shoulder to floor plus two hand widths. One hand width is to extend the fronts over the shoulder, the other is for turning.
To cut the back panel I laid the extensions next to the front panels and lined up the remaining fabric from top of the front panel down to waist and then followed the diagonal of the side extensions.
I didn’t want a very long train so I cut a curve about 3-4 hand widths.
The rest of the fabric will be used for sleeves and facings.
Since these I have machine stitched the joins and pressed them back ready for stitching. I haven’t yet done so as I need to really look through the Diderot stitches. Okay. Not totally clear but:
Fig, 1. 2. & 3. Elévation & places de dessus & de dessous du point de devanten piquant les deux étoffes de haut-en-bas & de bas-en-haut. Fig, 4. 5. & 6. Point de côté ramenant le fil en-deffous par-dehors après avoir piqué les deux étoffes. Fig, 7. 8. & 9. Point-arriere ou arriere-point, repiquant de haut-en-bas au milieu du point-arriere après avoir piqué de bas-en-haut. Fig, 10. 11. & 11. Point lacé comme le point-arriere, lieu qu’il fe fait au- en deux tems, revenu en-hauton ferre le point, & retournant l’aiguille on repique en-arriere commeau précédent. Fig, 13. 14. & 15. Point à rabattre fur la main piquant le haut-en-bas & de bas-en-hauten-avant les points drus espacés & également. Fig, 16. 17. & 18. Point à rabattre fous la main commele dernier au-lieu qu’ayant percé l’étoffe supérieure on pique-l’étoffe inférieure par-dehors, ensuite on pique les deux en remontant. Fig, 19. 20. & 21. Point à rentraire comme le point à rabattre fur la main se faisant en deux tems en retournant l’aiguille avant tout il faut joindre à point fimple les deux envers l’étoffe retournée on ferre de ce point les deux retours il faut pour cela très-peu d’étoffe &les points très-courts. Le point perdu n’eft qu’un point-arriere ajouté au precédent. Fig, 22. 23.& Point traversé, couture à deux fils croisés. Fig, 25. A, premiere opération; point coulé ou la passe, c’eft la boutonniere tracée de deux fils. B, la passe fermée du point de boutonniere. C, la passe achevée & terminée de deux brides à chaque bout quel’on enferme de deux rangs de points noués
BOARD IX. Sewing stitches. Fig, 1. 2. & 3. Elevation & places from above & from the fronten point pricking the two fabrics from top-to-bottom & bottom-to-top. Fig, 4. 5. & 6. Side point bringing the wire in-bursts from outside after stitching the two fabrics. Fig, 7. 8. & 9. Point-back or back-point, pushing up and down in the middle of the back-stitch after dipping from below upwards. Fig, 10. 11. & 11. Point laced like the point-back, place which it is made in two tenses, returned to the top, turns the point, and turning the needle backwards. Fig, 13. 14. & 15. Point to be folded on the hand, stitching up-down and down-up in front of the thick points spaced & equally. Fig, 16. 17. & 18. Point to be folded in the hand as the last one instead of having pierced the upper stuff, the lower stuff is thrown out, then the two are stitched upwards. Fig, 19. 20. & 21. Point to point as the point to be folded on the hand being done in two times by turning the needle before all must be joined at the same time the two to the returned fabric we iron this point both returns require very little material and very short points. The lost point is only a back-point added to the previous one. Fig. 22. 23. & Crossed point, cross-stitched seam. Fig, 25. A, first operation; cast point or the pass, it is the buttonhole traced two sons. B, the closed pass of the boutonniere point. C, the pass is completed & completed with two straps at each end which enclose two rows of knotted stitches
Figures 13. 14. and 15. Overhand hem stitch piercing from top-to-bottom and from bottom-to-top in front, the stitches densely spaced and even. Figures 16. 17. and 18. Underhand hem stitch [is] like the last, except that having pierced the upper fabric one pierces the lower fabric at the outside, one pierces the two together fortifying.
The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d’Alembert Collaborative Translation Project.
FIGURES Fig, 1. Le point de surjet. Fig, 2. Le point de côté. Fig, 3. Le point-arriere ou arriere-point: Fig, 4. Le point devant. Fig, 5. La couture rabattue. Fig, 6. Le point noué ou point de boutonniere. Fig, 7. Le point de chaînette. Fig, S. Le point croisê. Fig, 9. Peignoir en pagode: Fig, 10. Bonnet piqué. Fig, 11. Coëffure de dentelle. Fig, 12. Coëffure à deux rangs ou à bavolet. Fig, 13. Grande coëffe en mousèline. A coëffure en papillon sur une tête de carton.
FIGURES Fig, 1. The overlock stitch. Fig, 2. The side point. Fig, 3. The rear-end or back-point: Fig, 4. The point in front. Fig, 5. The seam folded. Fig, 6. The lockstitch or boutonniere. Fig, 7. The chain stitch. Fig, S. The point crossed. Fig, 9. Bathrobe in pagoda: Fig, 10. Quilted hat. Fig, 11. Scallop Coif of lace. Fig, 12. Coeffure Coif with two rows or bolster. Fig, 13. Large mussel cockerel mouseline coif. A butterfly coif on a cardboard head.
I finally put pencil and ink to paper and got my idea in colour.
Why? The direction of boning is as important as the shape of the pieces. If the boning is vertical it tends to follow the shape of the body more closely- it scoops in at the waist and out over ribs and bust and padding. On the diagonal it acts to channel soft body tissue into the seam with the V. So this gives us the variation in the conical shape.
I think I have found the perfect set of stays to mimic for my own. I am not sure about the breadth across the upper front for me but otherwise it is close.
Date: late 17th–early 18th century Culture: French Medium: silk, metallic thread Credit Line: Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Bequest, 1975 Accession Number: 1975.34.2a–c
early 1700s – Auction House Coutau- Bégarie – Corps à baleines, début du XVIIIe siècle,en damas ramagé rose, piqûres rectilignes soulignant les baleines. Devant en pointe arrondie à effet de corset lacé matérialisé par des dentelles aux fuseaux en sorbec argent, basques gainées de peau. Laçage à oeillets dans le dos, (quelques usures).
I am mostly happy with my stays but I’ll unpick the front panels as I want them on the straight. A whole lot of stays in museums are just labeled “18thC” which is not really helpful given how much the engineering of these stays changed.
I used my Effigy stays for fit and redrew seam lines. I used the Garsault diagram not the Diderot pattern. Garsault is slightly easier to see all the seam lines.
I also had Leloir in mind to look for consistencies and differences.
I also used the two sets of stays from Corsets and Crinolines to again look for consistencies and differences.
And also used Hunnisett as a guide, there is a pattern scanned out there labeled as from Waugh which is actually from Hunnisett.
This 1680s set has vertical boning strategically placed at CF CB and sides. This keeps the shape very straight and in fact with a little scoop and tilt back of the front. This follows fashion.
This from the 1730s has a lot of boning on angles to allow for the front to tilt forward every so much. There is still a sweep to the waist it is the start of the very lilted forward shape we see once busks really start to take hold.
Interestingly a very similar bit of engineering goes on for the S front corsets of the 1900s. A very rigid straight busk cases the hips to tilt back and the upper tilt forward, it’s not just the rigid straight busk that is similar but also the use of very diagonal, almost horizontal seams.
I need a nearly vertical front that curves at almost the same degree from top to bottom.
This portrait neatly shows the push up effect of the stays (narrow and tall with lots of vertical bones) but the start of a bit of a tilt forward due to the start of a very straight and rigid font.
I’ve cut them so that I can use the front of each panel for vertical support while the back is tapered more or less.
I love stays with a laced open front as it can allow for a pair of stays to be adjusted a bit to mimic some later styles- eras where length becomes defining. In fact there are a few sets of stays dated to the 1780s that use so many of these features- long skinny tabs that mostly have the boning going straight through, lots of vertical boning.
I do though need some new boning. It’s difficult because no two manufacturers use the same process. My favourite was very clearly extruded and so there are parallel lines running through it. It was very rigid, and was quite oval in cross section. This is important for structure as it’s harder to bend that shape than a more flat cross section.
But I do have steels to help support, once I can cut them. So many projects on hold as I need the support structure to start patterning. I can’t use the aviation shears that came with them. So I’m trying to get creative.
I spent the day digitising a cheat draft for a mantua. It’s very similar to Hunnisett but what I have tried to do was show the rationale behind it. This pattern is for a
(Pattern on fabric on the fold.)
It uses minimal measurements just like the originals. From left to right are the discreet drops of fabric that can be torn before any cutting or pleating is started.
My previous overlays of extant mantua show a fabric width of between 50 and 65cm in silk and over 100cm in wool. So I have tried to show the pattern shapes on 150cm/60″ wide fabric. But I also tried to indicate 50cm divisions.
The front length is taken from behind the shoulder to waist to hem (over hips) plus turnings. Here the front is 185cm to include a generous turning (10xm.)
The side widths are extensions cut from the full width, here I have limited to the width of the fabric but these could be cut wider by butting more fabric to the far side and continuing the same diagonal line. Turning is automatically included this way.
The back length is taken from the shoulder to waist plus the length of the diagonal line of the side extensions, and then extra to taste for the curve of the train.
The underskirt is then two full width drops of fabric or 6 drops of 50cm wide fabric from waist to hem (over hips) plus a generous turning (10cm.) Original skirts are between 5-7 drops, records describe openings being at the side or Centre Back. If a CB opening is desired then the joins should be turned to the sides and the CB fold slashed about 2 hand widths deep. The front will then also be on the fold.
The sleeves can be cut from a single drop of fabric approximately the same length as is used by the body. These vary greatly by decade but this allows for pleats and length to elbow.
Facings and cuffs can be cut from the greyed out left over fabric or from a dedicated drop of your choice.
To alter for width the side seam on the front and back panels can be moved further out so that the diagonal line is entirely on the extensions.
This is based on my proportions and is very much a “guesstimate” as I tend to err on the side of extra length.
Construction starts with joining the underskirt turning up the hem then pinning to the form which has been dressed with a petticoat.. This ensures the hem is entirely across the grain and thus the waist will form a gentle wave.
The waist can be turned and overhanded to a waist tape (or two for side openings) the waist should be pleated or gathered, with the direction of pleats pointing to the back. This skirt should be lined or at least have a deep facing to allow the hem to hang neatly and with body.
The mantua will need a shaped lining that should be taken on the body or a stand correctly shaped with stays of the right shape.
This is then pinned to the form and the main fabric pleated over that.
The back of the mantua is the foundation for fit so start at waist and pin up for the centre back and then fold the side backs as desired. The fabric can be slashed at the side to avoid wrinkles at the waist. The side seam should sit slightly to the back rather than strictly at the side.
The fronts of the mantua can be joined to the extensions (seam allowance to the outside for a later style, to the underside for earlier) and the full hem turned. This again allows for the hem to be entirely across the grain and the fronts can then be pinned and pleated on the form again aligning the hem to the correct level by taking up or letting down at the waist. Then pin the front pleats and slash the side waist to fit.
The front side should be folded in and the edge tacked to the back, the join between the extensions and back should be sewn so as to be on the inside once draped.
This is probably the last thing I need to do- a new post uncategorised- but I did indeed wear my Lemberg inspired garments though I didn’t manage to finish my Poysdorf inspired shirts.
So the Lemberg shirts allowed me to be the most comfortable at rest in a long time. It was very hot at the site and my nightshirt (which I use as a stunt shirt) was just a layer too much. It is anyway because the Fibro and Rheumatoid Disease and broken rib all mean anything that adds bulk to my torso to then squish into a laced dress is just too much.
And my shirts have never been excessive.
But the Lemberg shirts essentially acted as a very lightweight garment to protect my garments from me and while I didn’t quite manage to get my short shirts done I did get to test a few ideas.
I am probably going to reduce the fullness of the body of one of my shirts. This is after test driving a kleyr (“kleer” from collier and can be an under and outer garment, it is all on what fabrics were used) tied to mauwen (sleeves, sometimes part of a garment, sometimes an accessory and sometimes made from linen!) and finding it a very comfortable arrangement as opposed to tying the sleeves to my Lemberg shirt.
So yes. The shirt I made looked a lot like the reconstruction in that it is a little too long through the torso and the bust cups were not entirely made to fit me.
I suspect I need to shorten the torso to make it actually supportive, but it was also really adaptive, especially having the CF top not made in one. While I was wandering around just in my linens the top edge sat right up into my armscye area, and once dressed I could arrange the edge to meet in the middle or overlap so as to make a perfectly flat inner neckline.
So I do have two of these and I may look into some more transcribing and translating to work out what region specific garments might have looked liked. I know there were linen and fustian inner garments.
But I do need a lot more kleyr and mauwen to actually call what I have a wardrobe.
I also am remaking the bodice of my red linen dress to try and make it a bit earlier.
So, for years I have wanted to recreate Anne of Cleves wedding gown or her black and gold gown. But I just have not found a brocade (or brocotelle, or cloth of gold) that really would match what I have seen or read.
Sartor’s other fabrics are magical, absolutely magical. But this weave, though it is 15th Century is closer to the fabric seen in the guarding of gowns all over the Saxon and Westfalen regions.
The fabric is being woven right now. So it’s not available as pre-order any more. I have enough to make the same style of dress as I have recently made or the same style dress as one of her mother’s gowns.
So this means I also need to publish my information about those images or this is my third pretty dress with no information.
I think I have a way to get through it though. I have a few blog posts already added. I just need to get all the Cologne information out first.
This means all the Bruyn portraits first.
Then I can do the Trachtenbuch information. (I have gone through what I think is finally all the books including the italian. I don’t think I have found any more images.)
Then the inventory information.
Or should I just publish the Cleves stuff. It would be out of context though. right lets see what the gallery functions of my blog can do to make it easier.
My pink Cleves gown is hemmed! It’s full enough I can do the overlap even if my source art doesn’t show it. But I’ll have a lot more to say on that later.
The front is flared and the sides but the back is fairly straight. This makes the centre back spring a lot more from the body with the hem not folding as deeply as it could. But also ugh! How did I wind up with a 2″ wide piece missing!
Mr Carlo really loves this fabric. Like loooves.
Initially i was sewing on my knees until I found I could weave my needle through the fabric and not pick up the carpet. So that made it much easier to sew the curves without stretching the fabric.
I am looking at getting my Schnittbuch up this year, as well as a whole lot of research, and thus loads of documents for others to sift through. There is a lot, not a whole lot of costume info, but lots about life in the region.
Ginger fluff loves skinks. Luckily he is interested in the twitching tails so we’ve been able to rescue the actual skink. They are pretty canny. They play dead in my hand but as soon as I get them near foliage they can hide in, VROOM!
I’m taking a short break now from hand sewing. I have cohesive bandage to lay down as I think I’ll need it.
Anyway. I forgot how annoying and fiddly it is to hand sew a piled fabric to a fabric that is springy but without a pile. Thread just stretches and the turn under moves. Like moves moves. I am not sure I can adequately measure so I have to eye it.
I also think I’m doing it wrong. It’s absolutely right going by portraits but every single extant example has a narrow braid/twists of thread to hide what is likely a raw edge. Because yes, velbet has always been a PITA to work with. My best work involved making card templates and pressing and steaming my velveteen over it and still unpicking every single hem at least once.
I cut my guards to shape. 8cm wide from one selvage for the fronts and then I laid the fabric over my right sikirt front and pinned at regualr intervals 8cm for each guard. SO far so simple. But the velveteen has a nap. Which means turning and turning the remaining fabric to make sure the pile goes up- so the velveteen looks the most rich.
Then I lined up left over to the back centre which means piecing at the sides. This is based mainly on what Alcega has to say- actually all the Spanish tailors. All piecing is at the sides. Like everything. Or under arm, but basically sides are a mess, underarms next, CF and CB pretty much untouched. The Austrian tailors also show piecing in places we may not automatically think of.
I suspect it has everything to do with expectations. We expect no piecing- we limit most pattern pieces by the width of fabric. this is mostly okay when you can top and tail perfectly shaped pieces. But historically really special fabrics were narrow. So it was expected that they would not be wide enough so vertical seams at regualr intervals were expected. And ad they tend to be near the side seam it is a handy place to add any piecing as ther eis already an expectation of seams there.
So Centre Front and Centre back being, usually, cut with the selvages are expected to be continuous.
There are obviously exceptions. But this is the rule.
Anyway, so after matching fabric I was even able to follow the curve to cut my neckline guarding. And then was able to make strips for arm guarding.
I only hand sew while sitting cross legged. SO I do have to stop every so often to stretch. But knees make for a very handy “frame” to stitch. Also you can adjust tension by just moving, and also it only take a pin at each seam being worked on.
I’m not 100% convinced on the source being accurate. but I basically have two two portraits to go by otherwise, and they do confirm wide bands. And later examples show at least one wide band about the width of one of thee, and lots of religious paintings where it’s basically zero guarding. I think this is an acceptable variation in terms of colour, texture, and width of guarding. I like the tone on tone, the original is black on pink but it looks so Saxon. I love Saxon, and Cleves did have Saxon influence (Sybilla married the Duke and kept up correspondence with her brother so yes, very definitely an influence.)
So there is heaps to go and I have to pace myself or risk not being able to go to the event at all. I can work on hems while there as I have my linen kirtle and silk frock. So you know. I am set to just pack. But I want this dress and hat. And then I can upload my resources.
So i think I should do some stretches and call it an evening.
Also I have to get to the city some time soon. I know I have a reference for Jocabaa wearing frocks that outshone brides and also got numbers of how many cows brocade cost…
I am going full Cleves all the time 🙂 Ever since I read Anne of Cleves by Mary Saaler I have wanted to make all the outfits described as hers. I haven’t hit a jackpot in terms of a list of her wardrobe before she left for England but Hall cronicles her appearance enough. And I have gone and read a digitised reprint and it seems to ring true. But before all that I am trying to make a hat seen in my favourite protrait of her.
This was sold in London in 1930 and disappeared until The Rosenbach recently revealed that they had this portrait, https://rosenbach.org/blog/long-lost-triplets/ (Please note I have tried to adjust the perspective). This shows a gold coloured baret over a gold covered stickelsche with pearlwork (the colours can be identified in the Rosenback photos while the details can be seen in the copy from Saaler.
The St John’s Portrait is the one that is was X-rayed and discovered that her nose was originally painted longer. Of course historians have take that to mean he nose was made smaller to flatter. I believe it to simply have been a mistake. The Rosenbach portrait is clearly the most sensitively and deftly painted of all these portraits.
There are a few files of the St John’s portrait that are of different contrast levels. However I do believe this to be a different copy. It is clearly different based on the fall of the shadows of the fruit and the gloves. The tacks around the edges of the painting are not in the same position as the St John’s painting either.
This is from a photograph at the Witt Library and is part of an article in Burlington Magazine, “A Portrait of Anne of Cleves” March 1992, issue 134 pages 172-175. This is the only copy that keeps the three rows of brocade of the skirt- the majority of skirts of this region overlap so the three rows make sense in this light.