I am currently making over all my jewelry for my Cleves ensemble so these are the references I am using.
One of the accessories Anne of Cleves wears is a striking collar like necklace made from wide stylised flowers set with large round gold beads between.
This last version is most interesting as it matches so very closely to several other halsbander worn in cologne. Here are similar examples in chronological order.
Of these most use a floral centre of some sort (passionflower maybe?) in a rounded/squared open worked gold with round gold beads/balls, at the points that the sections connect to.
Of the extant collars and gurdeln in the Nordrhein several use a hinge join between sections.
While others, usually the more open worked pieces, use a loop and ring.
One final example uses loop and ring but further stabilises the pieces with stitches to a fabric base.
I can’t seem to find the same kind of fastening between sections as used in the portraits but I hope also that these images help illustrate how very fine gold and silverwork was in this region and it was especially on display in these halsbander whether for personal or religious use. I also believe this kind of work was used on other accessories and my next post will deal with this.
Also of note, in this region a long kette (chain necklace) was worn but was usually of a single chain, occasionally of the latribbon type seen elsewhere but more often a simple solid oval ring, or ring with a slight twist to lay flat.
I got a really nice flow of writing today while having my yearly infusions so I am about ready to start typing it up and adding inline notes (WP doesn’t like footnotes apparently so it’s just easier) and also images.
I have held off this for so long because once you start asking “but why? where is the connection?” you then start the long journey of learning a new language (maybe two because of course Latin), learning about society and material culture, and what was prized and what was was fairly mundane.
And it is very hard to then answer that first question except by then really prodding at each and every resource and asking “what if we are wrong? what would that look like in all these connections.
So finally I have my article framed really quite well. I normally like to talk about structure first but this is an era and place where nothing I am describing can be found as an extant item. Nothing. So I have had to look at art and read documents that nearly exclusively detail what’s on the surface and using that to extrapolate the structure. And the various crafts ands trades people involved.
I can also look at other extant items and point to other art and say “see how that looks? That’s not what this looks like.” And that is at least helpful.
I’m a bit behind my schedule for both my research and my pattern book. I have a wee set back because I think my harddrive is failing and while I do have everything backed up I’m not keen on reinstalling my OS. So I’m trying to work around that. Also I’m making so many back ups but also adding to my research so it’s still a bit messy.
But I did manage to take the brocade off my most recent hat and put a new cover on. I may want to do a little bit of adjusting of the edges. There are a very few images that suggest the hat is a very thin shell indeed and the way i tidied the edges made them a bit bulky. But that said it is a different shape and that style does curve back in, so I think I may be okay.
I think I know how to tackle the new galleries I need to do for the Nordrheinwestfalen pages. It seems that if I caption an image in a galelry on a page that remains and is used whenever that image is added to another page. So if I can caption the images first i can use them on multiple pages.
And I do now how to frame the hat research. It has taken so long to trust my own instincts, but what that meant was that I wound up posing a challenge to my hypothesis on multiple fronts and that I think led me to being more secure.
I still am not entirely sure about some specifics. But that can be a later project.
Meanwhile. I need yet another nap. So very tired and sore and very overheated. Hello humidity.
So, for years I have wanted to recreate Anne of Cleves wedding gown or her black and gold gown. But I just have not found a brocade (or brocotelle, or cloth of gold) that really would match what I have seen or read.
Sartor’s other fabrics are magical, absolutely magical. But this weave, though it is 15th Century is closer to the fabric seen in the guarding of gowns all over the Saxon and Westfalen regions.
The fabric is being woven right now. So it’s not available as pre-order any more. I have enough to make the same style of dress as I have recently made or the same style dress as one of her mother’s gowns.
So this means I also need to publish my information about those images or this is my third pretty dress with no information.
I think I have a way to get through it though. I have a few blog posts already added. I just need to get all the Cologne information out first.
This means all the Bruyn portraits first.
Then I can do the Trachtenbuch information. (I have gone through what I think is finally all the books including the italian. I don’t think I have found any more images.)
Then the inventory information.
Or should I just publish the Cleves stuff. It would be out of context though. right lets see what the gallery functions of my blog can do to make it easier.
Bildnisdiptychon -Rechte Tafel: Bildnis der Maria Jacobaea von Baden, Herzogin von Bayern
Maler: Hans Wertinger
Bild: Öl auf Holz, 69 x 45 – Inv.-Nr. 18
Of special interest is that his appears to be worked in pearls while the previous seem to be woven or embroidered in dark silk on gold, or may even be gold work.
Anne of Cleves has this motto in a similar pattern (capitalised on a geometric scroll effect outline, worked in alternating diagonal directions on a wide band.
Holbein’s portrait quite clearly show the design worked in red on gold. This may be woven as are most bands on hauben from this region. Most commonly they are purely geometric designs but of a similar scale.
Bruyn in particular captures the gold threads of woven patterns of women of Cologne.
St John’s copy of the Bruyn portrait (note the portrait I believe to be the original has a flat pearled baret masking the view of her haube. I believe the copies to not include the hat are copies as they do not perfectly represent the Stickelsche as it appears in work direct from Cologne. )
The design is worked upside down in comparison to all others (and this is repeated in other copies.) It is also worked in a pale colour, in the small digital copies it appears white or off white.
So this leads me to the most recently discovered potential portrait of Anna.
This portrait certainly matches facial features quite closely, and the haube looks the same as those in other Bruyn copies.
However after a decade or more of looking at North Rhine paintings what sticks out to me is that this is absolutely not the clothing of Nobility of Cleves, Julich, and Berg. This is absolutely perfect for middle class clothing of Cologne. Very wealthy but very clearly of someone affected by sumputary laws.
Red velvet sleeves and busttuchs are found repeatedly in inventories/documents of burgersfrau of Cologne.
The pendant is absolutely of a common shape, the girdle of a common type, the single wide chain necklance. Even the black on black fabric of her goller (kleyr) and gown.
The partlet under her gown is likewise of a type that puts her firmly in the city of Cologne.
It is also quite late in style. I would put this at 1550s. But this stage the Stickelsche (Sticklenchen) starts to look like a wing nut with a flat top and not just width at the upper side but lower side and is quite flat in regards to depth.
Commemorative paintings are not unusual, what is unusual is to lower the apparent status of the subject. Gold brocade trim on the gown at the very least would mark the subject as of nobility.
The painting looks from the surface to be from Bruyn’s workshop. The curved top of the canvas, the shaded plain background, the flat table top in front of the subject. These are also seen in the other copies of the other Bruyn painting.
Without access to information about the painting itself this asks many more questions than it answers.
In all the copies the words are upside down and in pale paint on warm gold. Could this indicate they are painted by someone not familiar with the physical properties of these hauben? Could that indicate they are all copies from outside of her homeland?
If so how can the details of this portrait match so well to the garments of burgersfrau of Cologne?
If this is by Bruyn (possibly the younger) does this mean the princesses could have worn clothing not indicative of their wealth? Or is this a deliberate statement?
Or could it be simply a portrait of an unrelated woman from Cologne?
There is very little in the way of imagery of real people from Cleves, Julich, and Berg from this time to be found online or printed in books. I have been very lucky to have a copy of the inventory of Jocabe of Juelich-Kleve-Berg but it is very definitely from a time where the Spanish influence has nearly overwritten the local clothing style. I have also been lucky enough to find/be lead to collections of inventories of women of Cologne.
A future blog post will explore the artwork of the Duchy, specifically those of the Duchess Maria and her Daughters (Sibylla, Amalia, and Anna.)
Today I tackled the gored skirt plates and a pieced sleeve.
Yesterday I took in some clothes (cut, stretch stitch, and overlocked, all needed new bobbins/rethreading.)
I made a small mistake of going on twitter. I follow a lot of science communicators and today was a day of special comments they received.
I’ve also tried to check what I can do for my hands, and currently I have fingerless gloves. it makes it harder to type, I think it’s the pressure of the cuffs. So I’m trying to use my left hand for typing and right hand only for backspace etc.
I’ll give hands a good break before going back to do the last skirt plates. Basically adding trains and turnbacks. Sleeves are kind of fun. I really want to get those twisted Austrian/Anna von Kleve types 🙂
And I’ll definitely have to get the assembly plates sorted as well this week.
I’m also trying to remake my red velveteen Cologne gown 🙂 And really want to make the extreme wingnut shape headdress 🙂
Finally, I washed and tinted my hair again. Just need to tidy the hairline a bit.
I still need to do some tidying, and I am definitely making a few more of these, so it’s not totally complete right now. I need to sit it slightly further forward too.
(Wearing my Kimmy Schmidt cardigan because it’s so much part of my new me- allowing myself to wear several colours at once.)
I added more pearls yesterday to the embroidery of the pink hat and sewed up the brim.
The seam allowance was caught through all layers with a pick stitch every 2″ which anchored the gathering running stitch into short curves that follow the edge. The prick stitches are nearly invisible on the other side.
The pearls were removed from the frame. I made two more circles of the same heavy duty fusible/shape-forming material to add extra support the pearl platter shape and basted a layer of shot silk to the inner most circle.
Then clipped the extra fabric to the same depth and gathered to create the turn under.This was easy as the support circles kept the shape perfectly.
I bound the edges and trapped the gathers in place. The silk is bias cut. I used to also believe this was fairly wasteful until I started to think like a workshop. Bias is not at all wasteful if you use a short length over several projects.
As an example. The skirt for the gown that this hat is made for used 3m of velveteen for the hem guarding. That is more than I used in the skirt. It is in part because I was cutting on the fly but I kept my seam allowance to a minimum.
But I used three strips of bias tape for the hem facing and about the same for the underskirt. And I have a lot of silk left over.
So, think about how many projects you can use your bias strips for and dedicate a length to that 🙂
The cap was pulled apart a few nights ago during a bit of insomnia and then I got to test a few lengths of brocade.
I decided on a denser piece of the same saree I used originally on this form. And I used the same silk as used in the bias tape to tidy the inside. I do not have any curved needles but I found a cheapie one that could be bent and oh they are perfect for this kind of seam.
The internal part of the headpiece can be of two shapes. This curved edge is seen in both linen and silk versions but I haven’t seen it with the flat cap as well. Only with a fairly pointed piece to put a jeweled strip over.
Sorry for the use of English terms. I don’t want to use terms that come from the area as I’m not convinced we have them correct. All the terms at this point are in a bit of fluidity. i think I’m getting closer and will do a proper run through very soon.
I am so inordinately happy with this! It has everything I love about the Cranach Saxon style with the weirdness of everything in the Nordrein (North Rhine.)
But it is weird. I’ll break down all the weirdness as I go but of note is the tone on tone. I deviated a little from the original, or rather combined two (three) figures in one. So the pink ground of two and the crimson velvet borders of another.
But tone on tone is very definitely part of this region, especially in the red/pink tones. And especially as velvet on a flat fabric.
Bildnis einer Frau
Sammlung:Köln, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Sammlungskontext: Stiftung Dr. Hubert Dormagen / Kerp, Inventar-Nr. WRM 3300, Zugang: 1980.12.31, Dauer: ab 1980.12.31
Thuringen, I am not sure, Cologne (see what I mean by variations of spelling!)
So this is just one manuscript, and the Cologne image might be shot gold and red, but it is from the period. this is a hand drawn costume book, so little concern about it being coloured in at a later date. This work is full of pink as a main fabric. Full. But I am specifically looking for the tone on tone elements.
The Triumph of Maximillian is another illustrated book full of pink. But here again I have limited to tone on tone in red/crimson.
Sophia von Mecklenberg, married the Duke of Brauchweig, part of estphalia and so also has the mix of influences.I did not know of this image until today, however I am familiar with the two pieces of stonework depicting her in a very similar dress- I had it set aside as research for the sleeves, this confirms that the sleeves are weird, hooray! She was buried in Cell an
But the colours are nearly identical to my frock 🙂 So that is exciting. I was working with a limited range of fabric.
I knwe of her through the following images from Bildindex (handy hint, grabmal is a great search term for looking for images
Grabplatte der Herzogin Sophia von Mecklenburg
nach 1541 Grabplatte, Grabskulptur, Sandstein
Standort: Celle, Kirche, Evangelisch-lutherische Stadtkirche Sankt Marien, Chor
Gedächtnis: Sophia (Mecklenburg, Herzogin) Herzogin Sophia von Mecklenburg war die Gemahlin Ernst des Bekenners
Also a full 3d view
Epitaph des Herzogs Ernst des Bekenners und seiner Frau Sophia, Herzogin von Mecklenburg
Cornelis Floris (2) (Werkstatt) 1576 Epitaph, Grabskulptur Alabaster
Standort: Celle, Kirche, Evangelisch-lutherische Stadtkirche Sankt Marien, Chor (Nordwand)
Gedächtnis: Ernst (Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Herzog) Gedächtnis: Sophia (Mecklenburg, Herzogin)
So side track aside there are many more examples of red based tone on tone garments of the wider region.
I’m taking a short break now from hand sewing. I have cohesive bandage to lay down as I think I’ll need it.
Anyway. I forgot how annoying and fiddly it is to hand sew a piled fabric to a fabric that is springy but without a pile. Thread just stretches and the turn under moves. Like moves moves. I am not sure I can adequately measure so I have to eye it.
I also think I’m doing it wrong. It’s absolutely right going by portraits but every single extant example has a narrow braid/twists of thread to hide what is likely a raw edge. Because yes, velbet has always been a PITA to work with. My best work involved making card templates and pressing and steaming my velveteen over it and still unpicking every single hem at least once.
I cut my guards to shape. 8cm wide from one selvage for the fronts and then I laid the fabric over my right sikirt front and pinned at regualr intervals 8cm for each guard. SO far so simple. But the velveteen has a nap. Which means turning and turning the remaining fabric to make sure the pile goes up- so the velveteen looks the most rich.
Then I lined up left over to the back centre which means piecing at the sides. This is based mainly on what Alcega has to say- actually all the Spanish tailors. All piecing is at the sides. Like everything. Or under arm, but basically sides are a mess, underarms next, CF and CB pretty much untouched. The Austrian tailors also show piecing in places we may not automatically think of.
I suspect it has everything to do with expectations. We expect no piecing- we limit most pattern pieces by the width of fabric. this is mostly okay when you can top and tail perfectly shaped pieces. But historically really special fabrics were narrow. So it was expected that they would not be wide enough so vertical seams at regualr intervals were expected. And ad they tend to be near the side seam it is a handy place to add any piecing as ther eis already an expectation of seams there.
So Centre Front and Centre back being, usually, cut with the selvages are expected to be continuous.
There are obviously exceptions. But this is the rule.
Anyway, so after matching fabric I was even able to follow the curve to cut my neckline guarding. And then was able to make strips for arm guarding.
I only hand sew while sitting cross legged. SO I do have to stop every so often to stretch. But knees make for a very handy “frame” to stitch. Also you can adjust tension by just moving, and also it only take a pin at each seam being worked on.
I’m not 100% convinced on the source being accurate. but I basically have two two portraits to go by otherwise, and they do confirm wide bands. And later examples show at least one wide band about the width of one of thee, and lots of religious paintings where it’s basically zero guarding. I think this is an acceptable variation in terms of colour, texture, and width of guarding. I like the tone on tone, the original is black on pink but it looks so Saxon. I love Saxon, and Cleves did have Saxon influence (Sybilla married the Duke and kept up correspondence with her brother so yes, very definitely an influence.)
So there is heaps to go and I have to pace myself or risk not being able to go to the event at all. I can work on hems while there as I have my linen kirtle and silk frock. So you know. I am set to just pack. But I want this dress and hat. And then I can upload my resources.
So i think I should do some stretches and call it an evening.
Also I have to get to the city some time soon. I know I have a reference for Jocabaa wearing frocks that outshone brides and also got numbers of how many cows brocade cost…