Oh boy. I have been trying to get dates for a large number of image files, but I think I need to very quickly get what I have online as there are a handful of images that are stubbornly not at all easy to pop into my current folders as the dates simply to not match the style in the art. So I’m going to have to bookmark a whole lot of sites to come back to so I can do this fast start to my pages so that I can then explain my rationale for dates.
This painting has always been a bit of a mystery to me. It really does look like the work of Bruyn, her face especially but her dress does not look entirely as expected from Cologne, but it does not mean it isn’t North Rhine.
Last year the painting was taken out of storage to be studied. So far fake aging has been identified as well as an understanding that the crest was added in the 19thC.
I’ll be interested to know to what extent her clothing has been altered, one element rings as untrue and that is the cuff. Not for being rather flamboyant but how the red has been treated- I suspect it is the other side of the cuff but might have been repainted over the wrist as it it was decoration.
The paned sleeve is also seen in the Weidtz costume book and on the triptych on the figure of Amalia. But the specific style is straight from several Tom Ring portraits of women in the second half of the 16thC.
Interestingly while we are very familiar with the style of hat worn by Anne of Cleves I do have several instances of headgear that is very different.
Right now I am backtracking all my image references to group by date. So this is going to be a bit of a project but it is happening. This post has been brought to you by this search. I have a folder of a 215 images still to date, not including all the bildindex images that also need dates added.
But there will be a page on hats. Because they are extremely misunderstood. There are several forms and how they came about is very fun to track.
There are times when you just cannot ignore an opportunity and one arose to get a length of the Sartor reproduction weave of the cloth of gold fabric of the Golden Gown of Margareta in Upsala.
So, for years I have wanted to recreate Anne of Cleves wedding gown or her black and gold gown. But I just have not found a brocade (or brocotelle, or cloth of gold) that really would match what I have seen or read.
Sartor’s other fabrics are magical, absolutely magical. But this weave, though it is 15th Century is closer to the fabric seen in the guarding of gowns all over the Saxon and Westfalen regions.
The fabric is being woven right now. So it’s not available as pre-order any more. I have enough to make the same style of dress as I have recently made or the same style dress as one of her mother’s gowns.
So this means I also need to publish my information about those images or this is my third pretty dress with no information.
I think I have a way to get through it though. I have a few blog posts already added. I just need to get all the Cologne information out first.
This means all the Bruyn portraits first.
Then I can do the Trachtenbuch information. (I have gone through what I think is finally all the books including the italian. I don’t think I have found any more images.)
Then the inventory information.
Or should I just publish the Cleves stuff. It would be out of context though. right lets see what the gallery functions of my blog can do to make it easier.
I think in Anglo-centric writings and art history there has been a lot of context missing when interpreting the clothing depicted in the portraits of Anne of Cleves.
I have also been looking through modelbuchs at embroidery and found some patterns that seem to be used in art (if not in entirely there are deer/hart that look to be worked in a similar fashion.
I was not able to find any pattern for the scrolling embroidery/weave of the fabric of Anna’s haube which reads “abon fine.”
This phrase has been interpreted to be her personal motto. However this same pattern is found on the clothing of other women across the Germanic states.
Conrad Faber, “Faber von Creuznach”
PORTRAIT EINER JUNGEN FRAU
Tempera/ Öl auf Holz.
53,5 x 38,5 cm.
Conrad Faber was active in Frankfort, which is to the South and East of North Rhine.
The motto also appears on the brusttuch of Barbara Schellenberger in a portrait by Hans Burkmair.
Barbara and Hans Schellenberger
Date Barbara: 1507, Hans: 1505
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, room 11
Burkmair was active in Augsburg and this portrait is of an Augsburg citizen.
Here the phrase is “a bon fino” In all cases “a bon” is contracted to read as “ABON.”
And on one of my favourite gowns of one of my favourite women in fashion history:
Bildnisdiptychon -Rechte Tafel: Bildnis der Maria Jacobaea von Baden, Herzogin von Bayern
Maler: Hans Wertinger
Bild: Öl auf Holz, 69 x 45 – Inv.-Nr. 18
Of special interest is that his appears to be worked in pearls while the previous seem to be woven or embroidered in dark silk on gold, or may even be gold work.
Anne of Cleves has this motto in a similar pattern (capitalised on a geometric scroll effect outline, worked in alternating diagonal directions on a wide band.
Holbein’s portrait quite clearly show the design worked in red on gold. This may be woven as are most bands on hauben from this region. Most commonly they are purely geometric designs but of a similar scale.
Bruyn in particular captures the gold threads of woven patterns of women of Cologne.
St John’s copy of the Bruyn portrait (note the portrait I believe to be the original has a flat pearled baret masking the view of her haube. I believe the copies to not include the hat are copies as they do not perfectly represent the Stickelsche as it appears in work direct from Cologne. )
The design is worked upside down in comparison to all others (and this is repeated in other copies.) It is also worked in a pale colour, in the small digital copies it appears white or off white.
So this leads me to the most recently discovered potential portrait of Anna.
This portrait certainly matches facial features quite closely, and the haube looks the same as those in other Bruyn copies.
However after a decade or more of looking at North Rhine paintings what sticks out to me is that this is absolutely not the clothing of Nobility of Cleves, Julich, and Berg. This is absolutely perfect for middle class clothing of Cologne. Very wealthy but very clearly of someone affected by sumputary laws.
Red velvet sleeves and busttuchs are found repeatedly in inventories/documents of burgersfrau of Cologne.
The pendant is absolutely of a common shape, the girdle of a common type, the single wide chain necklance. Even the black on black fabric of her goller (kleyr) and gown.
The partlet under her gown is likewise of a type that puts her firmly in the city of Cologne.
It is also quite late in style. I would put this at 1550s. But this stage the Stickelsche (Sticklenchen) starts to look like a wing nut with a flat top and not just width at the upper side but lower side and is quite flat in regards to depth.
Commemorative paintings are not unusual, what is unusual is to lower the apparent status of the subject. Gold brocade trim on the gown at the very least would mark the subject as of nobility.
The painting looks from the surface to be from Bruyn’s workshop. The curved top of the canvas, the shaded plain background, the flat table top in front of the subject. These are also seen in the other copies of the other Bruyn painting.
Without access to information about the painting itself this asks many more questions than it answers.
In all the copies the words are upside down and in pale paint on warm gold. Could this indicate they are painted by someone not familiar with the physical properties of these hauben? Could that indicate they are all copies from outside of her homeland?
If so how can the details of this portrait match so well to the garments of burgersfrau of Cologne?
If this is by Bruyn (possibly the younger) does this mean the princesses could have worn clothing not indicative of their wealth? Or is this a deliberate statement?
Or could it be simply a portrait of an unrelated woman from Cologne?
There is very little in the way of imagery of real people from Cleves, Julich, and Berg from this time to be found online or printed in books. I have been very lucky to have a copy of the inventory of Jocabe of Juelich-Kleve-Berg but it is very definitely from a time where the Spanish influence has nearly overwritten the local clothing style. I have also been lucky enough to find/be lead to collections of inventories of women of Cologne.
A future blog post will explore the artwork of the Duchy, specifically those of the Duchess Maria and her Daughters (Sibylla, Amalia, and Anna.)
After years and years of searching I agree, yes, stickelchen does refer to headgear. It’s been harder to confirm than might be thought, however dictionaries of the region during the time frame that the term was used are rare. But one has been found. A copy and a transcription.
Why is is so difficult?
A “stuck” is a piece and “stick” can refer to a pointed stick, literally, or embroidery.
And “chen” is a diminuitive. Also “gin.”
So little embroidery just doesn’t seem correct for a rather large hat.
And at the time “perlen” was most frequently used to describe pearled pieces.
Many of the headpieces were pearled, or made from gold fabric, or covered in netted work. Rarely do they seem to be embroidered in a general sense.
The front piece more regularly is decorated in pearls or jewels.
Clothing is also tough. There are lots of garments, but very little in the way of definition. Rock might be a gown or it may be a skirt alone. And the lovely huge inventory I have is full of spanish styles!
I’ll just have to take time to read the full texts not just skim! 😉
Today was spent diving into auction sites. So exciting and exhausting finding better quality images than before. It feels a lot like the work I do to rebuild my site- retreading old ground for not much reward.
But today also a book that has finally cemented how I want to approach my own book:
It’s a merchants hand book. And it just says so much about what was important for a merchant at the time.
Firstly it’s very nice, but also sturdy.
There are tools!!!! In the front a sundial and compass!!!! This together with the lists of locations and dates of large faires really highlights that trade was full of travel! Ditto the pages of coins- for identifying/converting local currency.
And the back! Scales for money.
There are also pages for sketching! With silverpoint.
I mean it’s so wonderful, and absolutely comparable to a modern day netbook or ipad. Or what I used to have at Uni which was like a filofax. Or even a phone case with slots for money, cards, photos and possibly a mini ruler etc.
So I am considering creating a portable sewing/cutting/pattern collecting book. A premade base with elements for individualisation.
I already planned on my plates being able to be individually coloured, but now I can look at making some portable tools to go along with it! And extra pages to record dress and patterns of dress when travelling.
It’s literally the boost needed for the weekend after feeling a little overwhelmed and a bit defeated.
While auction hunting some of those better images have also made it easier to decide on what jewels to make for my Nordrhine gear 🙂 There are at least two variations on what looks like a wheeled mount with a jewel in the middle. And lots of examples of non mounted foliage.
I also made a full list of all the plates I need to do. At 19 so far. Got at least two more bodices to capture and two skirt plates (increasing/decreasing waists and trains) and still a lot of sleeves (so happy with the spiral paned sleeves though 🙂
But I am tired and my hands are starting to hurt.
I do also need to make diagrams and figure drawing to match each. Luckily we have the Lemberg finds and many illustrated examples of a fitted chemise that it will make it easier to do all of this. A shirt tends to hide a lot.
Oh! I also need to get a few shirts transferred to this new format.
Not my own plates this time, though I did get my spiral sleeves sorted.
Collecting modelbooks and books of trades really helps with interpreting art. Today after tracking back an image in a document (reverse image search is getting very good!) and then finding the original I was able to find even more images of people in hand crafts.
The book today is often refered to a book on lacework, but it’s clear the patterns are quite far reaching.
Title : [Libro primo-Libro secondo] De rechami per elquale se impara in diuersi modi lordine e il modo de recamare, cosa no mai piu fatta ne strata mostrata, elquale modo se insegna al lettore voltando la carta. Opera nova. : [estampe, livre de modèles]
Publisher : [Alessandro Paganini] (Italie)
Publication date : 1532
Description : Référence bibliographique : Courboin, 1041-1042
Rights : public domain Identifier : ark:/12148/btv1b10537222v
Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Estampes et photographie, RESERVE 4-LH-102
Relationship : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb40354751t
Provenance : Bibliothèque nationale de France
Date of online availability : 09/05/2016
This is by Paganino Paganini and according to Wikipedia he pretty much lived and worked all his life in Italy (Brescia then Venice) along with his son.
The works suggest a great deal of contact with German engravers. These scenes of transfering a design to fabric are quite a neat mix of elements one would expect of a German and Italian engraver.
The low slung braids and shaped skirts of one and the evenly rounded linen headdress of the other.
However there is a plate that appears a few times that gets down right Cologne! It is entirely probable the plates were created separately to the text that fills the space.
The timing is perfect for a mixing of cultures, Venice attracted a lot of German printers, and Durer famously traveled and recorded dress of women from the region.
Exactly why there are women in extremely North Rhine clothing has not been able to be uncovered in an afternoon, however the sculptural strip of linen at the front of the headdresses are so very iconic. The key feature being the wings and square frame effect.
This figure even has the braids of an unmarried woman at the front her her headdress but there appears to be a tail to the back that does not appear in North Rhenish dress.
And there is a family connection:
di Angela Nuovo – Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani – Volume 80 (2014)
Sposò Cristina, figlia di Francesco Della Fontana (Franz Renner da Heilbronn), stampatore tedesco attivo a Venezia dal 1471 al 1486, una parentela insolita nel panorama della stampa veneziana, dove la tendenza era a legarsi e imparentarsi secondo la provenienza geografica.
He married Cristina, daughter of Francesco Della Fontana (Franz Renner from Heilbronn), German printer active in Venice from 1471 to 1486, an unusual kinship in the panorama of the Venetian press, where the tendency was to bind and relate according to geographical origin.
Today I tackled the gored skirt plates and a pieced sleeve.
Yesterday I took in some clothes (cut, stretch stitch, and overlocked, all needed new bobbins/rethreading.)
I made a small mistake of going on twitter. I follow a lot of science communicators and today was a day of special comments they received.
I’ve also tried to check what I can do for my hands, and currently I have fingerless gloves. it makes it harder to type, I think it’s the pressure of the cuffs. So I’m trying to use my left hand for typing and right hand only for backspace etc.
I’ll give hands a good break before going back to do the last skirt plates. Basically adding trains and turnbacks. Sleeves are kind of fun. I really want to get those twisted Austrian/Anna von Kleve types 🙂
And I’ll definitely have to get the assembly plates sorted as well this week.
I’m also trying to remake my red velveteen Cologne gown 🙂 And really want to make the extreme wingnut shape headdress 🙂
Finally, I washed and tinted my hair again. Just need to tidy the hairline a bit.
I really should just publish what I have and build on it later. It’s hard though as I really want to do everything at once. But I don’t even have good photos of my early work! I’ve passed so much of it on but really have no decent photos of any of it. So I really feel like my own history is lacking, let alone how that feeds back to me from the public. But it does sort of mean I’d like to remake a few things in new fabric…
That said, just looking up frazzled frau on google brings my old tripod site up! I really need to see if I can open that up again 🙂 Oh man, looking at all the lovely comments about my old site really makes me want to get her all properly revved up again. If you like something tell the person 🙂
It’s tough because there has been a massive influx of images in the last few years. But I do have pin boards, and my tumblr is still there, but a bit forgotten, sorry!
I have some in progress boards to come up, but it’s rare that any pin I add is uncredited. I try and find the most current location. Usually that means the best quality but not always. But it means people finding and bookmarking pins should be able to just click and go at their convenience. Even so, some museums change their content enough that I will have to go back and check some. The Metropolitan Museum of Art has recently upgraded their databases to an amazing degree, but it means old links do not work and often there is not enough information to quickly find the item. But it’ll be worth it 🙂
I am more tired than ever, RA does not get kinder the longer you have it, it generally just becomes more chronic than traumatic. But the fatigue really is difficult to manage. So it means all research takes a massive toll even before I get them in some sort of order.
But I have enough new information that yes. It will be done this year. As are all my patterns. Yesterday I overlapped my own bodice pieces to see if I can create a modifiable pattern. Yes. And it does work literally for every single garment I have made if looked at from perspective of scale and engineering.
So that is extremely exciting! I knew that I used previous patterns for newer gear but I also found some experimenting that worked (shifting to side seams) and some that worked by virtue of a bit of luck with fabric choice and use of stay tape (pretty accurate for a lot of gear when viewed as narrow woven goods used to stabilise a neckline.)
I think this will work a lot better than the Victorian workshops due to the reduction of seam lines. Victorian bodices do rely on all the seams even if some are less customised than others. Simply cutting fabric into a curved seam changes the engineering properties to a degree that is very hard to understand. But it both stabilises and adds stretch. There is usually enough change in the properties to be able to fit to a back with very little change. It’s usually possible with the CB and side seams with a pattern block that already has som curve for the shoulder blades and lower back built in.
So having seams in places that are easy to self adjust or have someone else work on is great!
I will get some more watercolour board this week as I have now got enough of a pattern block for those pieces, and enough thumbnail sketches of where to measure that there is enough to commit to good quality paper 🙂
Yesterday I got my skirt templates drawn on nice card stock. this makes it easier to hand, and I’m able to use a compass to do curves 🙂
Today I managed to scale up all my bodices currently made so I can see the over all picture of what I have done. I knew I basically built everything from the patterning developed for my kampfrau so it was interesting to see how true this was. Only my open front dresses seem to deviate from this.
I need to get a pattern from my new Cleves dresses too. So will try and do that today as well. It’s interesting construction wise in the absolute simplicity.